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Issues: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-13
Downloads: 345

Extraction of leaf essential oil from ‘Khasia’ landrace of Piper betle L.: An innovative business input to conventional agroforestry system

Bidisha Mondal

Genetics & Plant Breeding, School of Agriculture & Allied Sciences, The Neotia University, Sarisha, West Bengal, India. E-mail: bidisha.mondal@tnu.in

Abstract:

The ‘Khasia’ betel leaf-based agroforestry involving timber and non-timber crops is a natural non-destructive, chemical free traditional cultivation system adopted by the tribal communities of North Eastern India. The leaves are harvested five times a month and due to perishability the unsold leaves are discarded that sometime creates environmental pollution due to disease contamination in decomposed leaves. The excess leaves could be utilized for extraction of leaf essential oil having a shelf life of more than three years. The ‘Khasia’ betel leaves collected from Tripura state was used for extraction of essential oil with yield of 0.44% on fresh weight basis. The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC_MS) analysis detected 30 medicinally important components predominated by phenylpropenoid, sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes (90.3 %). The major components were chavibetol (50.4 %), chavicol (7.9 %), chavibetol acetate (6.1 %), chavibetol diacetate (2.3 %) and methyl chavicol (1.5 %). This phenylpropenoid class of aromat- ic compound are useful in pharmaceutical sector. The government aided training of the tribal communities in clean and green technology of essential oil extraction may open a new avenue of income generation, provide environmental sustainability, ecological equilibrium with articulate management of agroforestry waste.

Received: 09 April 2023 / Accepted: 03 August 2023 / Available online: 18 August 2023

Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 

(Forestry Ideas, 2023, Vol. 29, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 366

Deciphering the anthropogenic challenges of peat swamp forest degradation to improve awareness and emphasis on restoration in South Sumatra

M. Edi Armanto (1), Elisa Wildayana (1), and Bella Syakina (2)

1. Faculty of Agriculture, Sriwijaya University, South Sumatra 30820, Indonesia. *E-mail: mediarmanto@unsri.ac.id

2. Centre for Global Sustainability Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.

Abstract:

Peat Swamp Forest (PSF) belongs to a unique ecosystem and will be very difficult to be recovered if already degraded, thus we need to be fully realised about this ecosystem. The re- search aimed to analyse the anthropogenic challenges of PSF degradation, to improve aware- ness and to make urgent emphasis in providing their restoration. This research was conducted within 2020–2023 in South Sumatra Indonesia. The research method applied field survey and laboratory work. Current PSF was threatened its existence, its various practical functions were neglected and favoured the economic benefits of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). The peat thickness is for determining its agriculture suitability, peat depth is allowed for agriculture if its thickness is < 100 cm (classified as marginally suitable, S2), peat thickness > 300 cm must be conserved (classified as not suitable, N). Patterns of PSF degradation are creating impermeability layers of water; changing plant type and density; and modifying plant types of land cover. The pattern of changing plant type and density (executed by land speculators) determined two-third the PSF degradation. Hence, the government has to make policy decisions based on PSF vulner- ability and the negative impact of its degradation at global, state, provincial, district, sub-district and local levels and followed by agricultural programs on how to improve income of local people.

Received: 07 June 2023 / Accepted: 04 August 2023 / Available online: 18 August 2023

Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

(Forestry Ideas, 2023, Vol. 29, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 283

Assessment of physico-chemical status of waters in selected sampling sites of Chepelarska River, Bulgaria

Kristina Gartsiyanova (1)*, Stefan Genchev (2), Atanas Kitev (2), and Marian Varbanov (1)

1. National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography, Hydrology and Water Management Research Center, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIGGG-BAS), Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 3, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria. *E-mail: krisimar1979@gmail.com

2. National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography, Department of Geography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIGGG-BAS), Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 3, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria.

Abstract:

Water is not just a commercial product, but a common good and a limited resource that should be protected and used in a sustainable manner, in both terms – of quality and quantity. However, water is under pressure due to variety of uses from different sectors, such as industry, agriculture, tourism, transport, energy, etc. which leads to deterioration in the quality of water resources. The aim of the study is to assess the chemical status of Chepelarska River, right tributary of the main river in Southern Bulgaria – Maritsa, based on more than 10 physico-chemical parameters for the period 2015–2021. Data were provided by the Executive Environmental Agency (ExEA) to the Ministry of Environment and Water (MOEW). The evaluation of the studied river is based on Ordinance No N-4/14.09.2012 (concerning the characterisation of surface waters) and Ordinance on environmental quality standards for priority substances and some other pollutants (Resolution of the Council … 2010), in accordance with the requirements of Directive 2000/60/EU. To achieve the set goal, the Canadian Complex Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) was applied, through which a complex and differentiated assessment of the status of water in terms of its quality was carried out. The obtained results show constant excesses of the norms for the indicators nitrite-ni- trogen (N-NO2), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and orthophosphates (P-PO4). Ac- cording to them, organic pollution of river waters is mainly of agricultural and municipal-domestic origin. The industrial activities in the area carried out for decades to this day could be considered as a source of a possible pollutant that led to an increased content of heavy metals – copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn) and especially zinc (Zn). The obtained new data is a key emphasis in making management decisions to mitigate and prevent current and future pollution of river systems, as a result of various anthropogenic impacts.

Received: 28 April 2023 / Accepted: 10 August 2023 / Available online: 21 August 2023

Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

(Forestry Ideas, 2023, Vol. 29, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 268

Assessing the age structure, growth rate and condition of Squalius cephalus (Cyprinidae) in the middle and upper streams of the Ogosta River

Vasil Kolev

Department of Wildlife Management, University of Forestry, 10 St. Kl. Ohridski Blvd., 1797 Sofia, Bulgaria. E-mail: vassilie@abv.bg

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to analyse the growth and condition factor of Chub (Squalius cephalus L.) from the Ogosta River in north-western Bulgaria. The river belongs to the Danube basin. The study focuses on the Chub population in the middle zone of the Ogosta River, situated above the Ogosta Reservoir. The data was collected in November 2021, with a total of 76 specimens captured using electrofishing techniques. The sample consisted predominantly of three-year-old fish, with the most common size group falling within the size range 11–13 cm. The standard length of the fish ranged from 5.6 cm to 42.6 cm, while the gutted weight varied from 2.2 to 1270.2 g. The estimated length-size (L-S) relationship was determined as L = 0.1913·S+2.701 (r2 = 0.97), and the weight-length (W-L) relationship was derived as W = 0.0105·L3.15 (r2 = 0.99). The results were evaluated in comparison to 14 local populations of Chub in rivers across Bulgaria. The data indicate a relatively slow growth rate of the species in the Ogosta River. This study is the first of its kind to focus on the Chub population in the middle zone of the Ogosta River following the construction of the Ogosta Dam. It provides valuable insights into the impact of hydropower construction on the Chub population in the area.

Received: 09 July 2023 / Accepted: 17 August 2023 / Available online: 30 August 2023 

Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

(Forestry Ideas, 2023, Vol. 29, No. 2) [Download]
Downloads: 253

Timing of migration and breeding phenology of European
Turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur) in Bulgaria

Gradimir Gruychev*, Stoyan Stoyanov, Evlogi Angelov, and Hristo Mihaylov

Department of Wildlife Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of Forestry, 10 Kliment
Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria. *E-mail: gradi.val@gmail.com

Abstract:

Between 2014–2022 we monitored the arrival and departure date of European Turtle doves (Streptopelia turtur) in Bulgaria. We collected data on first arrival date trough observations in different part of the country between April 1 and May 1. In September, we collected data about the end of the species autumn migration. Data on breeding behaviour were collected between 2017–2022 from 41 nests. The correlation between the height of the position of nests and the height of the trees on which they were located was examined by Spearman rank moment test. Two peaks of fledging were established, i.e. at the end of June and the end of July. The mean height of the nests was 4.6 m. There is a significant positive correlation between tree height and nest height (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001). The mean clutch size was 1.84 and the mean brood size was 1.6 young/successful pair. Breeding success for all period was 82.76 %.

Received: 01 June 2023 / Accepted: 30 August 2023 / Available online: 06 September 2023

Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

(Forestry Ideas, 2023, Vol. 29, No. 2) [Download]
Issues: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-13